Dr. Jaideva Singh has an admirable command over both Sanskrit and English and has presented an exposition of this book with remarkable success. BOOKS. Siva Sutras are considered to be a revealed book of the Yoga: supreme identity of the individual self with the Divine. Dr. Jaideva Singh has studied the book. Jaideva Singh is the author of Spanda-Karikas ( avg rating, 29 ratings, 4 reviews, published ), Vijnanabhairava or Divine Consciousness ( avg.

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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. It studiously eschews mechanical worship, external rites and ceremonies and goes directly to the heart of the problem of the union of human consciousness with the Divine. There is no theoretical discussion in the book.

It describes 1 1 2 types of yoga each of which is a precious gem delineating the mystic approach to the Divine. For this purpose, it makes full use of all the aspects of human life — prana, manas, imagination and intu- ition.

The book has for the first time been translated into English. The translation of each verse is followed by copious expository notes which contain not only all that is of any value in the Sanskrit commentaries but also many practical suggestions made by Svami Laksmanajoo on the basis of his personal experience of these Yogas.

In order to understand the philosophical background of these Yogas, the reader is advised to go through the introductory portion of the author’s Pratyabhijnahrdayamor the Siva-sutras. Jaideva Singh has an admirable command over both Sanskrit and English and has presented an exposition of this book with remarkable success. Pandit 1 he Lalita Cult — V. Ramachandra Dikshitar MahanirvanaTantra — Ed. Jaideva Singh Prapancasara Tantra — Ed.

Arthur Avalon Reflection on the Tantras — S. Arthur Avalon Tantric Yoga— 7r. Bedekar Understanding Mantras — Harvey P. Alper Vibraung Universe — N.

Jaideva Singh

Panda Vinasikha 1 antra — Teun Goudriaan l k. Delhi,,FirstEdition: It closely follows the basic principles of Saivagama. It contains types of sibgh. There is hardly any other book on yoga which has described so many ways of approach to Central Reality that is present in each man as his essential Self.

: Jaideva Singh: Books

It is both extensive, and intensive in the treatment of the subject of yoga. An English translation of this excellent work is being provided for the first time. The text that has been adopted is mainly the one that is published in the Kashmir Series of Texts and Studies. At a few places, however, slightly different readings yielding better sense have been incorporated as suggested by Svami Laksmaga Joo.

Each verse of the Sanskrit text has been printed in both Devanagari and Roman script. This is followed by an English translation and singgh number of expository notes which will go a long way in sijgh the main idea of the verse. A long Introduction explaining the basic principles of the yogas described in the text has been provided in the beginning.

A glossary of technical terms has also been added at the end. I express my sincerest gratitude to Svami Laksmana Joo who has kindly taught this book to me word by word.

My thanks are also due to Shri Dinanath Ganj who has kindly helped me in the preparation of the index to important Sanskrit words and the alphabetical index to the verses. Saivagama has adopted the Yogaja marga in which the goal is not isolation of the Self from Prakrti or Maya but the integration of the individual Self to the Universal Self or Bhairava and the realization of the universe as the expression of His Sakti or spiritual Energy.

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The ideal sinbh Saivagama is jaidevs the rejection of the universe but its assimilation to its Source. Vijnanabhairava is an excellent exposition of the yogaja marga. It has been referred to as Agama, 1 Sivavijnanopanisad, 2 and Rudrayamalasara 3 by Abhinavagupta. Yogaraja has referred to it as Saivopanisad. It is clear that it has been acknowledged by the great expon- ents of Saivagama as a very authentic work on yoga. It is not known whether Ksemaraja did not live to complete his commentary, or whether his commentary after the above verse has been lost.

All that can be said is that it has not been so far traced. So his commentary is not reliable. Bhatta Ananda is even more avowedly a follower of Saipkara Vedanta.

His commentary is, therefore, even far more removed from the original intention of the text. In the preparation of the present edition, these com- mentaries have not been translated. It is held in jaiseva esteem in Saivagama. Abhinavagupta calls it Siva-vijnana- upanisad. The authentic text of Rudrayamala Tantra is not available. So it is not possible to say how far the text of Vijnanabhairava corresponds to that of Rudrayamala Tantra. Tantras contain descriptions of ritual practices, sacred formulae mantrasmystical diagrams yantrasgestures mudrdspostures asanasinitiations dikfdyoga or mystic practices.

Vijnanabhairava is purely a manual of mystic practices in accordance with Saivagama. In the present state of our knowledge, it is impossible to give the exact date of Vijnanabhairava. It is likely that Vamananatha may be the same as Vamana, the celebrated writer on Poetics who flourished during the reign of King Jayapida of Kashmir A. If that be so, then it can be easily said that Vijnanabhairava was very well known in the 8th century A.

Perhaps, it may have been compiled a century earlier. Introduction xi So far as the commentators are concerned, Ksemaraja flour- ished in the 10th century A. In the colophon of his com- mentary, Bhatta Ananda mentions the date of the completion of the commentary according to which he flourished in the 17th century A. Sivopadhyaya says in the colophon of his commentary that jaideca was finished during the reign of Sukhajivana. This means that he flourished in the 18th century A. Ksemaraja in his Udyota commentary gives a descrip- tion of the esoteric meaning of Bhairava.

Thus Bhairava indicates all the three aspects of the Divine. While Bhairava has three aspects, He from the point of naideva of the mystic, is that Ultimate Reality in which prakdsa i.

Light of Consciousness and vimarsa or Eternal Awareness of that Light are indistinguishably fused. It is this Bhairava that is the goal of the seeker. The svarupa or essential nature of Bhairava is vijhdna or bodha or mahabodhacit or caitanya the main slngh of which is svdtantrya or absolute freedom revealing itself in icchd, jhdna.

It is to this Vijnanabhairava that the seeker of spiritual life has to be integrated. The entire manifestation consisting of subject and object is a mere reflection in this vijfidna. Just as a city sinngh a mirror appears jxideva something different from the mirror, though it is nothing different from the mirror, even so the universe though appearing different from vijfidna is nothing different from it.

In verses 2 to 6 of Vijnanabhairava, the Devi mentions certain well known statements about Bhairava and wants to know His paravastha — highest state or essential nature. Bhairava categori- cally rejects the various well known opinions about His highest state and pithily but with luminous clarity states in verses 14 and 15 what His essential nature consists in: In verity that can neither be indicated nor described in words. One can be aware of that only when one is completely free of all thought-constructs vikalpas.

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One can have an experience of that bliss in his own inmost Self when one is completely rid of the ego, and is established in punydhanta i. That state of Jaiddva which is full of the bliss of non-difference from the entire world bharitakara is alone Bhairavl or Sakti of Bhairava. This Vijnanabhairava is the goal of simgh. Paradevl or Bhairavl is only the Sakti Power or energy of Bhairava. Just as there is no difference between fire and its power of burning, even so there is no difference between Bhairava and Paradevl.

Paradevl has been called Saivl mukha or means of approach to Siva. The word yoga is used both in the sense of comm- union with the Divine and the means upaya for that commu- nion. So types of yoga or means of communion with Bhairava have been described in this text. Unfortunately, no word has been profaned so much in modern times as yoga.

Fire-walking, acid-swallowing, stopping the heart- beat, etc. Even psychic powers are not yoga. Yoga is awareness, transformation of the human consciousness into divine consciousness.

Vijnanabhairava mentions dharands or types of yoga. It is a book on yoganot on philosophy, but its system of yoga can be better understood if one is acquainted with its metaphysical background.

The means of communion with Bhairava have been classified under four broad heads in Saivagama y viz.

These have been described in detail by the author in the Introduction to the Siva Sutras. In this book, in the notes under each dharana it has been indicated whether it is ariava or Sakta ox Sambhava.

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Just a casual hint by the guru or the spiritual director is enough for the advanced aspirant to enter the mystic state. Such a rare case is known as that of anupdya.

AnavaJaidevs and Sambhava are definite techni- ques. These are, however, not watertight compartments. The aspirant has to pass from the anava to Sakta and finally from the Sakta to the Sambhava state. Vijnanabhairava has utilized all the traditional techniques of yoga-postures, mudras or gestures, development of pranaSakti, awakening of kunifalinlmantra japa or recital of words of power or sacred formulae, bhakti devotion jndna realization through XIV VijMnabhaira va understandingmeditation, bhavana creative contemplation.

It even uses certain techniques of very non-formal nature, e. It has recommended one hundred and twelve dharanas ad modum recipients according to the mode of the recipients keeping in view the fitness or competence of the aspirants so that any jaidevq that may suit a particular aspi- rant jaidfva be singn by him.

This involves the following processes: This is the essence of yoga according to Vijhanabhairava. Indian thought believes that between the body and the mind or between the material or physical energy and mental energy, there is prana which is an intermediary link between the two. The word prana has been variously translated as the vital force.