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Antonio Escohotado Espinosa Madrid, 5 July is a Spanish thinker, essayist and university professor whose work, while mainly focused on the disciples of Law, Philosophy and Sociology, has covered a wide range of fields. He gained public renown for his research on drugs as well as for his well-known anti-prohibitionist positions. This work together with Reality and Substance – an incursion in the fields of logic and pure metaphysic —lays the foundations of a strong philosophical basis which has underpinned his intellectual production.

With De physis a polis From Physis to Polishe went back to the pre-Socratic thinkers while playing a leading role in the emergence of the island of Ibiza as a counter-cultural centre by founding the Amnesia Discothequeduring late-Francoist Spain when democracy was rising in its wake. On the bases of logic and metaphysics, he gets deep into epistemology and science theory, deriving afterwards towards even more strictly human phenomena such as economy and political power, as well as gender myths, family and sexual customs, or the inebriety modalities of inebriation.

The common momentum in all these fields is the affirmation of human freedom as an antidote against fear or against the authoritarian impositions alien to personal responsibility. He practiced the bioassay by trying, classifying and describing the physical and subjective effects of more than thirty different psychoactive substances for drafting a handbook. He has maintained numerous controversies in the media due to his opinions about subjects related to moral issues such as drug consumption itself, prostitution or euthanasia.

Just as his followers consider him as representing independence of judgment or as cultivating freedom of thought, his detractors consider him as representing intellectual impertinence. Occasionally he has caused rejection in certain academic circles which accused him of professional intrusion. The reaction encountered after the publication of the epistemological manifesto entitled Caos y Orden Chaos and OrderEspasa Essay Award, illustrates it.

It can be asserted that Escohotado is not only a thoughtful person but, as it can be discerned through looking at previously mentioned public controversies, he is also a person of action. Driven frequently by his temperament, he has found himself in uncomfortable or even risky situations in which scholars are rarely to be found. Examples include those during his clandestine leftist militancy, his imprisonment as a result of drug-related matters or even the police persecution suffered after the scandal caused by his TV interventions in Argentina.

Professionally he developed an intelligent work as translator encompassing more than forty titles such as those of Newton, Hobbes, Jefferson and Bakunin, among others. Back then, ten years of my life in Rio were about to come to an end. This lead him to forge a rebellious spirit prompted by authoritarianism and sexual repression. A chronic hepatitis enabled him to shorten his period of service and obliged him to reflect on his future. They were all part of an improvised tribe whose reasonable wing continued their studies and education while the more radicalized one would rediscover terrorism.

His reflections resulted in the writing of a series of bioessays, which some decades later brought him to compose a first cultural history of drugs and a phenomenology of the main psychoactive substances. These initial publications disguised certain conceptual immaturity with wscohotado of scholar erudition. In them Escohotado mixes any of the issues treated with his coetaneous philosophical passion, the study of the works of Hegel and Freud, two authors which will influence him permanently.

In a similar manner he writes his PhD thesis, The moral philosophy of young Hegel. In several occasions, this resulted in the absence of the proper quorum required to qualify the work.

Aprendiendo de las drogas: Usos y abusos, prejuicios y desafios by Antonio Escohotado

Christianity, embodying the tearing between venennos and its fossil, would be reality captured in the form of fantasy and vice versa, the truth estranged of itself. It would be one of the firsts, if not the first monograph dedicated to this school in Spain, as well df his first sales success.

After these initial works, Escohotado starts detaching himself more and more from utopic positions. Thanks to an unpaid leave of absence from his post as an official which in principle would last more than two years, Eschotado launched himself in into experimenting a life without luxuries, sustained with the revenues generated from his translation work and getting by without conventional habits.

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In those days escohotxdo island offered traditional Ibiza country houses casas payesas designed following ancestral techniques, without neither electricity nor water but very cheap. They were escohtado by lox new inhabitants into a sort of monasteries, so devoted to collective life and to orgiastic vrnenos as those of the Middle Ages.

Although only a minority had vehicles, walking or hitch hiking was sufficient for getting around to sustain a highly intense social life. Everything revolved around loving flirtation framed in a diffused plan to reinvent life with material austerity and alternative drugs. It was precisely deep experiences with visionary substances such as LSD, [19] as well as unceasing study, what made the author elaborate his own metaphysics treatise.

The results are just as disputable as those achieved by piecing the missing work of Veneno back together, even though the style gains in fluidity and expressive economy. Just like the specialist, decided to talk about himself in any case, the postmodernist does the proper thing by imitating intellectuals such as Lacan, Deleuze or Althusser. According to Escohotado, they are focused on disguising the inanities with ve jargon of which mystery starts and ends with twisting grammar. From Physis to Polis concludes with the simultaneous birth of the physical world as a cosmos emancipated from the resource of magic, together with that of democracy as an order sustained on civil liberties.

The classic metaphysical or ontological treatise was already a genre in disuse or even considered as obsolete by many back then. It starts by defining basic discourse features in order to deduce the subsequent categories linking them from the first to the last one, and Escohotado chooses:.

This house would end up becoming Amnesia, one of the most multitudinary and well-known discotheques in the world. Shortly after this he published Family Storiesfour myths about sex and duty Historias de Familia, cuatro mitos sobre sexo y deber Anagrama,his first anthropological essay.

This work reviews the marital model illustrated by Mary and Joseph, in the light of the comparison with the relationships between Gilgamesh and Ishtar, Zeus and Hera or Hercules and Deainira. In this analysis of the foundational myths of genre and family, the following parade in chronological order: The essay surprised firstly because of the chronicles contained in the Apocryphal Gospels — all of them being canonical texts.

Which show the child and adolescent Jesus as a despot with magical powers used to always get away with anything. Also the conflict between decency and freedom imposed upon Roman women, as only those identified as whores enjoyed the legal age status. The others were minor individuals under guardianship by some man, from birth to tomb. The last section reviews the ancient family law, followed by a very controversial epilogue about the feminist movement.

The Diario 16 journal commented back then: During the three months of pre-trial detention he was forced to share cell with the head of a Corsican-Marseilles group who was a criminal with an open file in Interpol on extortion and on three assassinations.

In addition to that, the fact that he was also put under pressure to collaborate with one of the sides, none of which lacked double agents, made him take the decision to leave the island.

This allowed him to work with no interruptions, just receiving mail and food through the lower hollow of the door. He published practically one book a year, [30] while writing monthly opinion pages for El Paat the time. This unleashed a new TV trend of debates on drug prohibition in the nineties. It was also during this time that he hardly managed to pass all suitability tests in order to become a tenured professor, in charge of the Philosophy and Methodology of Social Science subject at UNED National University of Distance Education in Spainwhere he would remain until his retirement.

Freedom, enshrined as a supreme political value by the democratic constitutions, is incompatible with any crime of mere challenge. In Apriltwo years after the appearance of the essay, the jurisprudence issued the first judgment of acquittal due to provoked crime delito provocado. Escohotado has continued to draw the attention to the legal status of euthanasia contempt of Divine Providenceand even more so about the crime of suicide assistance contempt to the medical authority as outstanding issues.

This is because, practically, there is no psychoactive drug that has ever stopped being considered both a panacea veenos an infernal potion, depending on collateral factors in each case. Among those factors are xenophobia, and political, economical and theological interests. The competition between pagan communions and the Christian rite of mass, for instance, started prompting the witch-hunt in Europe and America.

Antonio Escohotado

He lists a host of examples: It was enough to gather chronologically antoni details of the reactions to each new drug to be able to open a window which had been shuttered until then in general history. Then he proposes two divergent modalities of the concept of sacrifice, which is the heart of all the rites instituted to purge guilt. Another provocative aspect of the study was the recovery of the sobria ebrieta s spirit, exemplary incarnated by Socrates in some Platonic Dialogues, resurgent with a liberal spirit since the 18th century.

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Escohotado documents the extent to which the psychoactive arsenal began again to be thought of as a resource to increase not only intuition and introspection but also self-control and work performance.

Many distinguished characters such as Goethe, Goya, Wagner, Bismarck, and Freud imitated emperor Marcus Aurelius, who took opium on a regular basis on the advice of Galeno, providing an illustrative contrast with the junkie figure originated from the prohibition, who uses that very same substance or its derivatives as an alibi to declare to be a human wreck.

According to the introduction:. Escohottado if ignored, this matter is no less relevant as a chapter in the history of religion or medicine, but it was transformed overnight into an explosive subject, such as sexuality, at the end of the 19th century.

Since then, nobody questioned the data nor the conclusions presented in his work, turning, that way, into the escohotaxo reference work on this matter. Shortly after, an abbreviated version was translated into diverse languages.

Encouraged for such a reception Esochotado completed the work in with an appendix dedicated to self-essay: This meant experimenting with such veneno, mentioning about a hundred of them and analysing closely the most common used cases- in both black and white market- such as alcohol, heroine, hemp, ether, benzodiazepines, cocaine, LSD, Coffee, ketamine or MDMA.

He analyzes drugs as a way towards self-discovery, maturity and dialogue or even simple entraiteinment:. Chemically, there is no way to distinguish a person who is under the effects of drugs and under the effects of yoga.

Antonio Escohotado – Wikipedia

Chemically, we are nothing but a set of reactions. The problem is that society tells you that, even if you are chemically the same, that one came in the good way and the other through the backdoor.

Practice shows who has good or bad taste and whether or not dee person has self-control. With the banning came also the victimised alibi, which edcohotado people to claim this great falsehood: I allow myself to rob my co-citizens and not to keep my word. Instead of classifying drugs as legal or illegal, hard or soft, or according to their respective chemical bases, the author arranges them in groups following functional terms.

They are arranged by needs after having clarified the fact that many psychoactive substances fulfill several of them. The author examines each substance one by one from variables such as minimum active dose, median lethal dose, tolerance factor, subjective and objective effects, synergies, antagonisms, and withdrawal syndromes.

The epilogue begins by saying: Hence the proposal stated in the last paragraph:. Its goal is to make us less and less toxic, and who use them more aware of their inalienable freedom. This is the oldest human aspiration: The title is explained by the nature of comedy as a genre.

On the bases of its practical variants, the book applies itself to the analysis of the political class, emerged from the democratic transition, distributing its material in two parts. The first one analyses fear as an individual and lobro passion, carefully setting boundaries, which separate fear from pain, by using a sampling procedure.

Despite having some works translated into Spanish they had not been subject of research in Spain. The second part focuses on the political class as establishment, reflecting on the institutional horizons of parliamentary democracy and anonio alternative, direct democracy, which now a day is within the reach of numerous societies thanks to the technological revolution. He pays special attention to terrorism as a feedback loop, in which the interests of the terrorist and the antiterrorists always coincide.

He also provides an alternative virtuous circle which opposes to that vicious circle, by analysing under what population parameters is a group able to claim the right of self-determination. For this purpose, he esscohotado closely the Swiss model, as well as the tension between centralism, federalism and confederalism. Both critics and readers were benevolent with the book, and his feedback loop thesis, which states that both the assassins and their repressors are feeding nationalist terrorism the loop, stimulated further studies in the area of political sociology.

The texts gathered here outline altogether a contemporary theory of health, considering that our nature inevitably merges being and thinking. His first and most extensive essay is dedicated to the Victorian anonymous My private life. Years ago, Escohotado had escohogado and prefaced [41] a two volume set abbreviated edition of the five volume set published back in the day.