Answer / ravi chaitanya. tholeti. Advantages: AS it is living thing it can symboitically associate with plant root. Microorganisms convert complex organic materail. Bio-fertilizers are normally the name given to manure and compost, although there are other materials which qualify. Here are 8 advantages and disadvantages to consider when using organic fertilizers in your program. What is an organic fertilizer? Organic fertilizer is usually.
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Citation of this paper. The increasing impacts on the environment due to agricultural practices in the world have gradually affected the quality of the soil in terms of structure and biological equilibrium, which has required the development of alternative practices to minimize and mitigate those impacts, parallel to the improvement on the yield per cultivated area and economical benefits for producers and farmers.
As a result, technologies such as biofertilization have emerged in order to minimize environmental impacts and take advantage of the resources available in the field. The main scope of this paper is to assess researches performed with the use of biofertilization, mentioning their advantages and limitations, reviewing some results on efficiency and benefits acquired in recent years and highlighting their potential for better agricultural practices worldwide.
Agricultural expansion, biological fertilizers, nutrients, sustainability. The growing need for supply of agronomic products for food and consumer goods processing by the modern society has caused substantial increases in agrarian activities in recent decades.
As a result, the need for implementation of methods that allow, among other things, to improve the efficiency of crops, mitigate adverse impacts on the soil, reduce the use of chemical fertilizers, and increase revenues per cultivated area, have been addressed.
For this reason, the implementation of conservative agriculture CA models has been a cornerstone of farming practices globally Benitez et al ; Morte et al The CA focuses on reducing adverse impacts on the environment, increasing crop yields and inputs, and implementing sustainable techniques for development of agriculture. Biological fertilization is based on the use of natural inputs including fertilizers, decaying remains of organic matter, crops excess, domestic sewage, animal manure, and microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria Chirinos et al They are used to improve fixation of nutrients in the rhizosphere, produce growth stimulants for plants, improve soil stability, provide biological control, biodegrade substances, recycle nutrients, promote mycorrhiza symbiosis, and develop bioremediation processes in soils contaminated with toxic, xenobiotic and recalcitrant substances Morte et al ; Corpoica ; Rivera-Cruz et al ; Alvarez et al Additionally, the use of bio-fertilizers can improve productivity per area in a relatively short time, consume smaller amounts of energy, mitigate contamination of soil and water, increase soil fertility, and promote antagonism and biological control of phytopathogenic organisms Chirinos et al ; Corpoica ; Porcuna et al The aforementioned aspects are translated into profitable benefits for farmers as a result of lower costs associated with the process of fertilization and higher crop yields Fundases ; Gonzalez et al In this sense, biologic fertilizers application can bring benefits from an economic, social, and environmental point of view.
However, the implementation of fertilization techniques requires feasibility studies, monitoring of environment variables involved in metabolic processes, acquisition of biological inputs, capital investment, time, and trained personnel Plaster ; Vanegas ; Alegre ; Fresco In order to achieve a sustainable agriculture is necessary the implementation of plans, programs, projects and initiatives directed toward the minimization of environmental impacts and consequent benefits for farmers and producers.
As a result of recent investigations performed to effectively assess the implementation of biological fertilizers under varying conditions, a review on their benefits and limitations is required to provide a valid background for academics, farmers and producers to perform future research complementing current work that deeply assess economical, environmental and social aspects related to the agricultural expansion worldwide. This paper focuses on the review of current research resulting from the use of biological fertilizers in different regions of the world to obtain a framework that facilitates the development of future investigations in the agricultural sector and, consequently, promote the reduction of environmental impacts associated to the permanent use of chemical fertilization.
Firstly in this article, an introduction to biofertilization techniques is addressed to understand the fundamentals that explain their functioning. Finally, conclusions and recommendations complete the paper. Biological nitrogen fixation is considered a key process in the biosphere and fundamental constituent of sustainable agriculture. It allows the conversion of gaseous nitrogen N 2 to the mainly forms of available nitrogen e. The conversion process of gaseous nitrogen and similar products more available for plant’s growth takes place by the action of microorganisms in the soil.
Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Beijerinckia i. Development of BNF depends on specialized microorganisms, i. These are responsible for its production through biological and physicochemical processes Aseri et al ; Sessitsch et al Additionally, BNF has shown minimal environmental impacts. The acquisition strategy for reducing atmospheric nitrogen by Rhizobium-legume-association is a complex process.
Rhizobium induces the legume to form nodules, thereby establishing metabolic cooperation, in which the bacteria reduce nitrogen N 2 to ammonia NH 4. The latter is exported to the plant tissue to be assimilated into proteins and other complex nitrogenous compounds. Simultaneously, the leaves reduce carbon dioxide CO 2 into sugars through photosynthesis and transport it to the roots.
In addition, it is estimated that Rhizobium-legume association is responsible for setting annually 35 million tons of nitrogen Sessitsch et al This amount significantly influences the fertilization of soils globally and favors the development of agriculture and forestry activities in several parts of the world. Society must meet its food needs through agricultural resources. Therefore, the use of methods that are effective and feasible to obtain better yields and meet global demand of inputs has become increasingly necessary.
Similarly, alternative methods arise to increase the soil fertility. The main scope of these methods is to provide greater efficiencies, increase the quality of agricultural products, minimize crop time, and reduce costs. On the other hand, contamination of soils, extensive and continuous use of chemical inputs and monoculture has led to the need of incorporating fewer invasive fertilization methods.
Next in this research article, some biological fertilization techniques, that represent lower environmental, implementation costs and efficiencies comparable to conventional chemical fertilizers used in the world, are presented and explored.
Biological practices can offer a wide range of opportunities for the development of better agrarian practices due to the advantages and benefits provided for the soil, products and farmers. Nevertheless, limitations of these practices are also well studied and recognized, which implies that feasibility studies should be carried disadvanatges to find out better solutions for each particular case in agricultural activities.
Advantages & Disadvantages of Biofertilizers | Home Guides | SF Gate
Next in this section, some benefits and limitations are mentioned to highlight the need of future research on some issues. Benefits and limitations of biological fertilizers Chen Benefits Limitations.
Biological fertilizers can mobilize nutrients that favor the development of biological activities in soils.
Maintenance of plant health is enhanced by the addition of balanced nutrients. Food supply is provided and growth of microorganisms and beneficial soil worms is impelled. As a result of the good structure provided to the soil, root growth is promoted. The content of organic matter in soil is higher than normal levels.
Promotes the development of mycorrhizal associations, which increases the availability of phosphorus P on the soil. Help to eliminate plantar diseases and provide continuous supply of micronutrients to the soil.
Contribute to the maintenance of stable nitrogen N and phosphorus P concentrations. Compost products have highly variable concentrations of nutrients. In addition, implementation costs are higher than those of certain chemical fertilizers. Extensive and long-term application may result in accumulation of salts, nutrients, and heavy metals that could cause adverse effects on plant growth, development of organisms of the soil, water quality, and human health.
Large volumes are required for land application due to low contents of nutrients, in comparison with chemical fertilizers. Main macronutrients may not be available in sufficient quantities for growth and development of plants. Nutritional deficiencies could exist, caused by the low transfer of micro- and macro-nutrients. This wide availability and the nutritional intake of trace elements make it an attractive alternative for the development of fertilization on soils suffering nutritional deficiencies.
It is a biological fertilizer with high proportions of nitrogen N and potassium Kmedium proportions of calcium Ca and phosphorus Pand low proportion of magnesium Mg and sulfur S. It allows getting favorable effects on physicochemical stability of soils, plants growth, and development of beneficial microbial populations.
Manure adds organic matter to the soil. Given the high nitrogen content, decomposition of organic matter is developed more quickly. Despite having low content of phosphorus Pmanure prevents blockage of this element, making it available for plants.
Aspects such as the type, age, and health of the animal affect the proportion of macro- and micro-nutrients available in the manure. For example, sheep and poultry manure contain high levels of nitrogen Nwhile manure from pigs, cattle, and horses have lower proportions of this element. The type of bedding i. Furthermore, the usefulness and usability of the product depends on the proportion of heavy metals and other chemical substances. The application of manure in the soil must be made in quantities or concentrations acceptable by rules and regulations from environmental and health authorities.
The purpose of the technique is to promote soil aeration, maximize the efficiency of agricultural production, and facilitate the development of biological activities that are able to create a medium rich in nutrients for plants growth. Although animal manure provides improved availability of nutrients and facilitates plants growth, it also has disadvantages and limitations of particular interest.
Some of the limitations are referred to possible risks on the safety of consumers, physicochemical, and biological stability of soils. In this regard, high contents of ammonia from manure can burn foliage and roots of plants; the presence of manure could increase the amount of weed flora and costs associated with transportation, and manure application are superior to those of traditional techniques. Besides that, the presence of heavy metals e.
Benefits and limitations of biofertilization in agricultural practices
For this reason, the use of manure to fertilize soils should be well assessed and considered in order to evaluate the cost-benefit ratio. Also, technical tests must be carried out to verify its safety Plaster Finally, excessive application of manure can generate important reductions of plants growth, extreme levels of nitrogen, ammonia, and salts that could lead to different undesired scenarios for farmers and the soil itself.
Mycorrhiza is a mutualistic association existing between fungi and most land plants. These partnerships are easy to locate in distinct places, from aquatic to desert, occurring at different altitudes and latitudes Guerra Therefore, its value in terms of availability and ease of use in various geographical conditions is widely recognized.
The fungi that form symbiotic associations are obligated bio trophic, meaning that they can only complete their life cycle by colonizing roots of host plants. This type of symbiotic association has been called bio-fertilizer and crop bio-protector.
It is also considered relevant for integrated management programs of soils and crops Guerra ; Padilla et al Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi belong to Glomeromycota division.
[Agriculture] BioFertilizers & Green Manure: Meaning, use, advantages, disadvantages
The most abundant and diverse is the genus’ Glomus, consisting of fungal inoculants i. Mycorrhiza inoculants application in soils provides benefits for agricultural and forest crops such as increased growth rate and tolerance of plants to drought and soil salinity Guerra Salinas et al stated that Glomus i. The proper selection and application of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi improves plant nutrition and increases the resistance of plants against pathogens and stress conditions both biotic and abiotic.
Furthermore, the wide range of options and applicability of AM in different visadvantages makes it an attractive technique to replace, partially or completely, chemical fertilization of soils. In the early seventies, application of sewage sludge in anc or sediment began for agricultural and forestry purposes in the United States. In fact, the Environmental Protection Agency U. Biosolids can disadvantagees applied to the soil through techniques such as dumping, injection, irrigation, among others, depending on the local environmental and financial conditions.
Several options for using the sludge from STP are suitable, for example: The latter requires dissolving the sludge, before being applied to the soil, where it is decomposed by microorganisms and filtered by the soil matrix. Therefore, it is the most promising disadvwntages from the economic and environmental perspective.
Moreover, the composition of biosolids is useful for soil nutrition, which explains the increased rate of use as amendment in several countries Jurado et al EPA classifies biosolids according to their content of heavy metals.
Those with lower concentrations can be applied under more flexible security advanfages.
Biosolids with higher concentrations are not oof to be used. The acceptance or denial of biosolids used as fertilizers is based on safety parameters, such as hazardous characteristics i.